### Bleeding-edge Science; don't ask me to explain these

Note, please, that I don't understand most of what follows:

From http://arxiv.org

cs.DB/0501079 [abs, pdf] :

Title: Data Mining for Actionable Knowledge: A Survey

Authors: Zengyou He, Xiaofei Xu, Shengchun Deng

Comments: 11 pages

Subj-class: Databases; Artificial Intelligence

The data mining process consists of a series of steps ranging from data cleaning, data selection and transformation, to pattern evaluation and visualization. One of the central problems in data mining is to make the mined patterns or knowledge actionable. Here, the term actionable refers to the mined patterns suggest concrete and profitable actions to the decision-maker. That is, the user can do something to bring direct benefits (increase in profits, reduction in cost, improvement in efficiency, etc.) to the organization's advantage. However, there has been written no comprehensive survey available on this topic. The goal of this paper is to fill the void.

In this paper, we first present two frameworks for mining actionable knowledge that are inexplicitly adopted by existing research methods. Then we try to situate some of the research on this topic from two different viewpoints: 1) data mining tasks and 2) adopted framework. Finally, we specify issues that are either not addressed or insufficiently studied yet and conclude the paper.

astro-ph/0501589 [abs, ps, pdf, other] :

Title: Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe

Authors: Juerg Diemand, Ben Moore, Joachim Stadel (University of Zurich)

Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures, published in Nature, January 27, 2005

Journal-ref: Nature 433 (2005) 389 - 391

The Universe was nearly smooth and homogeneous before a redshift of z = 100, about 20 million years after the Big Bang. After this epoch, the tiny fluctuations imprinted upon the matter distribution during the initial expansion began to collapse because of gravity. The properties of these fluctuations depend on the unknown nature of dark matter, the determination of which is one of the biggest challenges in present-day science. Here we report supercomputer simulations of the concordance cosmological model, which assumes neutralino dark matter (at present the preferred candidate), and find that the first objects to form are numerous Earth-mass dark-matter haloes about as large as the Solar System. They are stable against gravitational disruption, even within the central regions of the Milky Way. We expect over 10^15 to survive within the Galactic halo, with one passing through the Solar System every few thousand years. The nearest structures should be among the brightest sources of gamma-rays (from particle-particle annihilation).

gr-qc/0501086 [abs, ps, pdf, other] :

Title: Kaluza-Klein gravitons are negative energy dust in brane cosmology

Authors: Masato Minamitsuji, Misao Sasaki, David Langlois

Comments: 17 pages

We discuss the effect of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of bulk metric perturbations on the second Randall-Sundrum (RS II) type brane cosmology, taking the possible backreaction in the bulk and on the brane into account. KK gravitons may be produced via quantum fluctuations during a de Sitter (dS) inflating phase of our brane universe. In an effective 4-dimensional theory in which one integrates out the extra-dimensional dependence in the action, KK gravitons are equivalent to massive gravitons on the brane with masses $m>3H/2$, where $H$ represents the expansion rate of a dS brane. Thus production of even a tiny amount of KK gravitons may eventually have a significant impact on the late-time brane cosmology. As a first step to quantify the effect of KK gravitons on the brane, we calculate the effective energy density and pressure for a single KK mode. Surprisingly, we find that a KK mode behaves as cosmic dust with a negative energy density on the brane. We note that the bulk energy density of a KK mode is positive definite and there occurs no singular phenomenon in the bulk.

gr-qc/0501086 [abs, ps, pdf, other] :

Title: Kaluza-Klein gravitons are negative energy dust in brane cosmology

Authors: Masato Minamitsuji, Misao Sasaki, David Langlois

Comments: 17 pages

We discuss the effect of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of bulk metric perturbations on the second Randall-Sundrum (RS II) type brane cosmology, taking the possible backreaction in the bulk and on the brane into account. KK gravitons may be produced via quantum fluctuations during a de Sitter (dS) inflating phase of our brane universe. In an effective 4-dimensional theory in which one integrates out the extra-dimensional dependence in the action, KK gravitons are equivalent to massive gravitons on the brane with masses $m>3H/2$, where $H$ represents the expansion rate of a dS brane. Thus production of even a tiny amount of KK gravitons may eventually have a significant impact on the late-time brane cosmology. As a first step to quantify the effect of KK gravitons on the brane, we calculate the effective energy density and pressure for a single KK mode. Surprisingly, we find that a KK mode behaves as cosmic dust with a negative energy density on the brane. We note that the bulk energy density of a KK mode is positive definite and there occurs no singular phenomenon in the bulk.

From http://arxiv.org

cs.DB/0501079 [abs, pdf] :

Title: Data Mining for Actionable Knowledge: A Survey

Authors: Zengyou He, Xiaofei Xu, Shengchun Deng

Comments: 11 pages

Subj-class: Databases; Artificial Intelligence

The data mining process consists of a series of steps ranging from data cleaning, data selection and transformation, to pattern evaluation and visualization. One of the central problems in data mining is to make the mined patterns or knowledge actionable. Here, the term actionable refers to the mined patterns suggest concrete and profitable actions to the decision-maker. That is, the user can do something to bring direct benefits (increase in profits, reduction in cost, improvement in efficiency, etc.) to the organization's advantage. However, there has been written no comprehensive survey available on this topic. The goal of this paper is to fill the void.

In this paper, we first present two frameworks for mining actionable knowledge that are inexplicitly adopted by existing research methods. Then we try to situate some of the research on this topic from two different viewpoints: 1) data mining tasks and 2) adopted framework. Finally, we specify issues that are either not addressed or insufficiently studied yet and conclude the paper.

astro-ph/0501589 [abs, ps, pdf, other] :

Title: Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe

Authors: Juerg Diemand, Ben Moore, Joachim Stadel (University of Zurich)

Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures, published in Nature, January 27, 2005

Journal-ref: Nature 433 (2005) 389 - 391

The Universe was nearly smooth and homogeneous before a redshift of z = 100, about 20 million years after the Big Bang. After this epoch, the tiny fluctuations imprinted upon the matter distribution during the initial expansion began to collapse because of gravity. The properties of these fluctuations depend on the unknown nature of dark matter, the determination of which is one of the biggest challenges in present-day science. Here we report supercomputer simulations of the concordance cosmological model, which assumes neutralino dark matter (at present the preferred candidate), and find that the first objects to form are numerous Earth-mass dark-matter haloes about as large as the Solar System. They are stable against gravitational disruption, even within the central regions of the Milky Way. We expect over 10^15 to survive within the Galactic halo, with one passing through the Solar System every few thousand years. The nearest structures should be among the brightest sources of gamma-rays (from particle-particle annihilation).

gr-qc/0501086 [abs, ps, pdf, other] :

Title: Kaluza-Klein gravitons are negative energy dust in brane cosmology

Authors: Masato Minamitsuji, Misao Sasaki, David Langlois

Comments: 17 pages

We discuss the effect of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of bulk metric perturbations on the second Randall-Sundrum (RS II) type brane cosmology, taking the possible backreaction in the bulk and on the brane into account. KK gravitons may be produced via quantum fluctuations during a de Sitter (dS) inflating phase of our brane universe. In an effective 4-dimensional theory in which one integrates out the extra-dimensional dependence in the action, KK gravitons are equivalent to massive gravitons on the brane with masses $m>3H/2$, where $H$ represents the expansion rate of a dS brane. Thus production of even a tiny amount of KK gravitons may eventually have a significant impact on the late-time brane cosmology. As a first step to quantify the effect of KK gravitons on the brane, we calculate the effective energy density and pressure for a single KK mode. Surprisingly, we find that a KK mode behaves as cosmic dust with a negative energy density on the brane. We note that the bulk energy density of a KK mode is positive definite and there occurs no singular phenomenon in the bulk.

gr-qc/0501086 [abs, ps, pdf, other] :

Title: Kaluza-Klein gravitons are negative energy dust in brane cosmology

Authors: Masato Minamitsuji, Misao Sasaki, David Langlois

Comments: 17 pages

We discuss the effect of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of bulk metric perturbations on the second Randall-Sundrum (RS II) type brane cosmology, taking the possible backreaction in the bulk and on the brane into account. KK gravitons may be produced via quantum fluctuations during a de Sitter (dS) inflating phase of our brane universe. In an effective 4-dimensional theory in which one integrates out the extra-dimensional dependence in the action, KK gravitons are equivalent to massive gravitons on the brane with masses $m>3H/2$, where $H$ represents the expansion rate of a dS brane. Thus production of even a tiny amount of KK gravitons may eventually have a significant impact on the late-time brane cosmology. As a first step to quantify the effect of KK gravitons on the brane, we calculate the effective energy density and pressure for a single KK mode. Surprisingly, we find that a KK mode behaves as cosmic dust with a negative energy density on the brane. We note that the bulk energy density of a KK mode is positive definite and there occurs no singular phenomenon in the bulk.